A Decentralist Manifesto
[Reprinted from a pamphlet published in 1958 by
Libertarian Institute, Bombay, India; edited by Mildred Loomis and
republished in 1978 by The School of Living, York, Pennsylvania]
A new world is being born.
If this new world is to be a better world than the one now dying and
to make possible a fuller fruition of the human spirit, then it will
be very different from the Capitalist world of today, and different
from the world which the dictators of Russia and China are providing,
and different from the Socialist world into which most of the world is
Concerned and thoughtful men and women are challenged to arrest the
present drift and drive into a mechanized barbarism, and to contribute
to the birth of a world in which persons will be free to realize their
potentialities as creative beings. Such leaders must have the courage
to assert themselves, and must discipline themselves to think about
all the institutions essential to such a world.
The time has come to recognize that good intentions are not enough,
to part with sentimental follies and to expose power-seeking
politicians who call the demagoguery of the Welfare State democracy.
It should be clear that there is no one panacea for the problems of
society. No fanatic -- no one who would transform the world by hate
and revolution -- has anything but misery and frustration to offer
This manifesto is submitted to the thoughtful and concerned men and
women of the world urging them to assume the intellectual and moral
leadership of mankind in order to replace those who have demonstrated
incompetence, lack of vision, greed, bigotry and brutality.
I. HUMANIZATION AND SOCIAL RENAISSANCE
Human beings must be humanized.
A good society cannot be created unless a determining number of the
thoughtful and concerned men and women in each country exercise
influence, and see that power is properly utilized. The process of
humanizing individuals and society calls first for re-education, not
for political and economic action. To depend only on new institutions
is a mistake. If this mistake is made, the best set of institutions
will be perverted. The letter of the new institutions will be honored
but the spirit disregarded, and the ultimate end will be a repetition
of those repeated declines in civilization which dot the tragic pages
For this reason, some such program of educational reform as is here
presented is absolutely essential.
A New Leadership. The leadership which the priests lost to the
warriors, the warriors to the kings, the kings to the business men,
the business men to the financiers, and which the financiers are now
losing to the politicians, must be assumed by a group which sharply
distinguishes between the exercise of influence and the exercise of
power. The minority of concerned and thoughtful teachers and .writers,
of poets and preachers, of artists and scientists, of physicians and
lawyers, who constitute the real leadership of any society, must be.
reborn. They should consecrate themselves to the search and
realization of what is true, what is good, what is beautiful.
They must go even further.
They must not only seek and create, they must also teach. They must
equip those whom they influence with the accumulated knowledge and
wisdom of both the East and West, and of the ancient and modern world.
They must furnish inspiration, not only instruction; they must
motivate those whom they influence to live on a high moral,
intellectual and cultural level. Without such a leadership, no good
society and no good life can either be created or maintained.
2. Academic Autonomy. Universities above all other
institutions should be staffed by men and women of quality. But to
enable them to furnish unbiased and impartial leadership to
individuals and society, the universities must be autonomous -- they
must be completely free and independent. They must cease being
dependent upon government; they must be freed from the necessity of
catering to public officials. They must be freed from the dictation of
partisan ideologies, of the evangelists of religion; of commercial,
industrial and financial leaders Academic autonomy is not real unless
universities are completely free to seek the truth. Without this
freedom, they will omit teaching what is offensive to those who
control them; they will warp what they teach so as to please them;
they will teach what those upon whom they depend, demand of them.
3. Basic Instruction. Every child must be taught all that is
essential to their humanization -- a useful craft and the cultivation
of the Earth; the practice of domestic arts; to read, write and use
numbers. All must be imbued with the basic virtues -- the love of
nature, of beauty, and of mankind without regard to race, religion or
nationality Basic instruction in these matters should begin in the
home and continue in the school. No good society can be created
without this basic instruction.
4. Professional Instruction. Instruction to the limit of the
interest and the capacities of every individual, calls for some
professional instruction for the more gifted and diligent, in one of
the various fields essential to maintaining a genuinely civilized
society. Yet specialization should not exclude the general education
essential to developing each person's whole personality. General
education must not merely furnish information, but must imbue them
with high purposes and values so that professionals and managers do
not use their special skills only for their own aggrandizement.
5. Academic Education. Education is clearly distinguished
from instruction. Higher education in liberal arts and the humanities
is the right of all exceptionally gifted men and women Every family
and every community should consider it both a privilege and an
obligation to enable their gifted sons and daughters to cultivate
their talents. Higher education, however, must not produce only
scholars and intellectuals, but a class of selfless, inspired and
creative thinkers, scientists, writers, artists and professional men
and women, completely dedicated to cultivating the good, the true and
the beautiful. They must also be imbued with fortitude and courage
along with such deep love of humanity as to live, and if necessary
sacrifice their lives, for preserving the rights of free persons and
the values essential to a good society. Higher education should equip
the exceptionally endowed men and women to teach, to influence, to
furnish the wisdom and knowledge, the vision and the direction, for
social renaissance and -for the progressive humanization of human
6. Moral Re-education. A moral revival is essential at this
crisis in history. Education at every level must therefore deal with
values and purpose. Fallacies in this area must be exposed: moral
relativism and modern amoralism; the doctrine that positive law is the
only binding law; the theory that all statutory and even
constitutional law must be obeyed even in disregard of absolute moral
law. The moral law is the natural law, universal and perpetual. Like
all natural laws, it must be discovered and constantly and more
explicitly formulated. Moral law should, under no circumstance, be
confused with mere legislative fiat. The moral law is binding, upon
all faiths, all nations, all races, all statutes. Legislative acts
which disregard it [no matter how enacted nor how powerfully enforced]
are null and void.
Teaching of moral law, begun in the home, should continue in school.
Humanization of education in school and college is essential for the
moral re-education called for here. For milleniums moral education has
been warped by priesthoods. As a result moral education today is full
of inappropriate theological injunctions. Moral re-education calls for
separation between metaphysical creed and ethical obligation.
The true first commandment is "Harmony, not discord." This
prohibits all dogmatism, fanaticism, persecution; it is binding on all
humankind. It enjoins upon every religion, nation, race and every
political, social and economic doctrine, to be tolerant of every
person except only the intolerant. "Harmony, not Discord"
calls for the tolerance of dissent and difference which is essential
if the world is to be really free. Discord, with disregard of the
rights of others, is the inevitable result of intolerance. Discord is
involved when violence is done to individuals by private persons or
groups engaged in imposing their intolerance upon them Mass-discord is
involved when mass-violence and mass-killing is indulged in by
political or governmental promotion of intolerance Such intolerance
calls for disciplining those who practice it, with essential force,
until completely ended. Ostracising intolerants is recommended.
Discord should not be confused with disturbance. It disturbs mistaken
people to learn the truth about (heir mistaken beliefs, values,
activities and education. But to learn the truth* is essential to the
humanization of everybody, including those whom it disturbs.
Discovering truth is a kind of discipline, and mav be uncomfortable as
are most other kinds of discipline. But truth creates a foundation
upon which harmony replaces the static acceptance of discordant
mistakes. Ralph W. Emerson said, "Choose between truth and
repose. You can never have both."
7. Humanization of the Family System. The family system
should be normalized. Archaic patriarchal family systems must be
modernized; the disintegrated and atomized modern family must become
an organic entity again. For it is the family, not the individual,
which is the primary unit of society, and the family's responsibility
for its members must be recognized if there is to be any social
renaissance The evidence which establishes the family as the essential
nursery of human virtues, is overwhelming. This all-important
activity, now usurped by the school and the state, must once again be
reestablished as the principal function of family life.
8. Revival of the Small Community. Social and cultural
revival of the small community is just as essential as are economic
prosperity and political autonomy. Small communities are primarily
agricultural for the most part. But if life in them is to be humanized
they must be centers of arts and education, as well as of trade,
craft, manufacture and entertainment Small communities tend to decay
if they do not provide all the institutions and enterprises to supply
the basic needs and humane desires of the people who live in them.
The gifted young who have been given the privilege of higher
education, perhaps in distant colleges and universities, should be
inspired to bring back to the families which have nurtured them, and
to the communities in which they have been reared, the skills and good
taste they have been privileged to cultivate. (Too often the case
today is that youth have their appetites and their ambitions
stimulated for greater financial rewards which practising their
professions enable them to earn in metropolitan centers. )
9. Regionalism. Not the nation, but the region is the true
unit of the world. (Cultural nationalism is not to be confused with
political nationalism.) The nation-state today is almost always an
artificial aggregation of regional cultures. Regional arts should be
developed -- regional poetry and literature, music and dancing,
regional festivals, costumes, architecture and the genius of each
region encouraged. The present insistence upon standardization of
culture, and the creation of one uniform national or world culture,
should be arrested.
10. Pan-Humanism. All human beings, while members in smaller
units, are members of humanity. Membership is concurrent in groups of
differing area and levels. Real social renaissance for all humankind
will not come until every vestige of unilateral and exclusive
citizenship in nations is abolished, and people everywhere recognize
that their obligations to humanity are above those of nation-states.
Not the nation "right or wrong", but the world, the region,
the community and the family are entitled to claim peoples'
Between the region and the whole world, every social, cultural,
economic and political entity is an arbitrary construct, which should
be used only to develop regions more freely on the one hand, and the
whole world on the other. To whatever extent nation-states now usurp
the normal functions (and prevent normal development) of the whole
world, they should be abolished.
II. POLITICAL LIBERTY
Creating a New Leadership and re-organizing educational institutions
so that humankind may be humanized is the first step in the birth of
the sort of world for which human beings are hungering But more is
necessary. Good intentions and rigorous thinking must be followed by
action. The social, economic and political institutions which inflict
economic injustices, interfere with political liberty, and prevent the
realization of the good, the true and the beautiful, must be
abolished. Those which are imperfect must be reformed, and those which
are missing must be created by the voluntary activities of individuals
and groups, corporations and cooperatives, and where necessary by
political action, statutory changes or constitutional reform.
Human beings are not mere animals. They have, it is true, in common
with all other animals an inherited, instinctual drive for
self-survival (an economic drive). Also in common with animals, a
sexual drive for self-production. But much higher than these two is
the last instinctual drive with which evolution has endowed humankind
-- the drive for self-expression.
It is for this reason that no political institution can be considered
human and properly adapted to the nature of humankind if it in any way
infringes upon liberty; if it even in the slightest, interferes with
the conditions necessary to individual self-expression and to the free
development of the highest potentialities of being human. Six
fundamental political reforms are needed if the new world, now being
born, is to provide better for human liberty than the "free"
world (even at its best) is providing.
The Obligations and Rights of Human Beings. Every human being
confronts natural obligations -- the obligation to respect the person,
the possessions, the premises, and the rights of other human beings;
the obligation to utter no libels or slanders, not to interfere in any
way with the peaceful religious, political, economic or social
activities of others. Each person has the obligation to protect basic
rights and enforce these obligations by the payment of just taxes and
by answering every just call of any properly constituted local,
regional or world authority to defend them even at the cost of life
Every human being has certain inalienable rights -- to life, to
liberty and to property; the right to defense of his person and
property; to sue others, including public officials for compensation
for damages inflicted and for the redress of grievances; the right to
travel anywhere in the world; to free speech and publication; to
peacefully assemble and seek correction of injustices; the right to
freedom from search and seizure of himself, his possessions and his
premises except after a due proceeding at law -- a proceeding in which
he is represented by counsel, in which the judges are impartial, in
which the same facilities are furnished for securing witnesses as
those enjoyed by the State, and in which he is presumed to be innocent
until the charges against him are proved beyond reasonable doubt.
Every regulation, ordinance, statute, or constitutional provision
which violates any of these natural rights -- being morally null and
void -- must be repealed forthwith. The violation of any of these
natural rights by any public official constitutes malfeasance, and
such public official should be removed for usurpation.
The multiplicity of encroachments on these rights by so-called
democratic governments and Welfare States must be ended and every
encroachment repealed. All dictatorial governments, including those
ostensibly set up to promote socialism called peoples' democracies,
are by their very nature violators of these rights.
2. Limited Government. The functions and authority of all
government bodies shall be limited to those which are necessary to the
preservation of these rights and to enforce the fulfillment of these
obligations. The exercise of power by a government for any other
purpose whatsoever is invalid. Assumption by a government of anv
function which can be fulfilled by private persons and private
enterprises, shall constitute usurpation; and any regulation,
ordinance, statute or constitutional provision which legalizes such
usurpation shall be treated by all persons as null and void.
3. Local Autonomy. No free society (in which people truly
participate and so give continuing consent to what government does)
can long endure unless the primary political unit (the village,
borough, township, commune, canton) is autonomous. The present system
by which a centralized State exercises power over local communities or
"grants" limited power to them, must be ended. Ultimate
power is in the people, and they grant specific powers upward to their
local community; communities delegate certain powers to county or
district; the counties or districts to regional federation; and so on
until regional federations in the whole world finally grant specific
powers to a world federation. It is usurpation for power to descend
from a centralized State to the people. Today local autonomy calls for
political and power-decentralization.
4. Federation. Long human history has demonstrated that
democracy (real participation of the people in government) is possible
only in relatively small local communities. In all larger units of
government, participation by the people becomes a form only. All such
larger units of government become representative or 'republican"
Representation calls for federation (not union) of all units of
government larger than the local community. Federation must therefore
be substituted for the present oligarchical or autocratic organisation
of all larger units of government, beginning with the county or
district, and ending with the world. Not national union, but regional
federation -- not world union but world federation -- is called for.
Federation calls for a multiplicity of government units, each with
specific functions delegated to it by the smaller units which
constitute it, until at the base, ultimate, residuary powers are
exercised by the people in their own autonomous communities.
My strong condemnation of Nationalism is accompanied by a proposal
for a World Authority federally organized and strong enough to
maintain international peace. (Until such a world authority is a
reality, it could not be expected that nations surrender their
sovereignty. ) The United Nations as now organized violate basic
principles of federation. In spite of the passionate devotion of those
who believe in it, the United Nations is a fraud perpetrated by the
great powers, upon a peace-hungry world. As now organized, the United
Nations pretends to, but cannot, maintain world peace.
5. Concurrent Jurisdiction. Implicit in the two great
principles of autonomy and federation, is the principle of concurrent
jurisdiction. Since every unit of government (from the local community
to the world federation) should have specific and limited powers only,
and since those powers entrusted to larger units of government must be
exercised within the areas (and over the people in) the smaller units,
jurisdiction must be concurrent -- not exclusive or absolute.
This principle of concurrent jurisdiction applies to all levels of
government because no federated unit of government can fulfill its
specific functions if its jurisdiction is limited by the government of
any region in which it has to operate. Concurrent jurisdiction is
essential if effective federal action is not to be frustrated and
conditions result in further centralization of power rather than
6. Consent of the Governed by Self-Determination. People of
every region have a basic political right to live under a government
which governs with their consent. Yet hundreds of millions of people
today are governed in violation of this essential human right. Liberty
and democracy are mocked by this tragic fact. Millions of people are
governed by "people's democracies" which in reality are
Communist dictatorships. Other millions are ruled by combined native
and foreign oligarchies under the military power of great nations.
Millions of colonies are governed despotically by governments which
operate more "democratically" at home. Millions more in Asia
and Latin America are governed by military or political dictators and
oligarchies. Tragically, dissenting minorities in these despotisms are
accorded inhuman treatment.
World-wide autonomy and federation are ultimately the answers to
these problems. Democracy breaks down and falls into the hands of
political oligarchies, in large units of government. In such cases,
nations feel justified in intervening. An adequate world federation is
needed as an impartial trustee to assist formation of stable and free
governments for the millions now enslaved, or subject to foreign and
dictatorial rule not of their own choosing.
III. ECONON/IC JUSTICE
If the whole world is to be made free, and the peoples of the
so-called free world made completely free, justice and not equality,
must be the aim of the economic order. It is not true that economic
equality must be imposed by government upon human kind, in order to
abolish poverty. Prosperity is highest where political tyranny and
economic injustice is lowest. Poverty, on the other hand, continues in
proportion as equality is imposed.
Justice is in accord with nature's laws, and should be the aim of all
effort, including legal effort. Legalized equality is an attempt to
abrogate nature's laws. Justice provides economic incentives; enforced
equality destroys them.
Is it justice for the slack and shiftless laborer to receive the same
wage as the one who works diligently and efficiently? Is it justice to
pay the person who has devoted years of life to training, the same as
the person who has cultivated no skill and has been indifferent to
training and education? Is it justice to reward the person who has
been thrifty, invested savings productively, taken risks and
responsibilities in conducting an enterprise, the same as the person
who spends all his earnings, saves and invests nothing, risks nothing
and takes on no responsibility of any kind?
Justice is the expression of the moral law; enforced equality is a
form of compulsory charity. Charity to the victims of unavoidable
misfortune is a human obligation. But this is a voluntary, individual,
(and not a political) obligation.
A principle to govern a just and moral economic order is: "to
each contributor in proportion to his contribution" -- to labor,
capital, industry, agriculture, and management -- to each what each
contributes to the production of wealth. To establish this principle
in the new world aborning, seven fundamental reforms of the present
economic order are essential.
Free Enterprise. No truly just social system is possible if
freedom to embark upon enterprise is denied or curtailed. Freedom is
not possible if special privileges are granted to one enterprise which
handicap others, or if freedom to work (or employ any individual) is
infringed by laws of any kind. Political freedom is mocked when
economic freedom is curtailed. Equality of opportunity is
essential to insure full use of capital and labor, to furnish
incentive and encourage initiative, and to assure justice in the
division of wealth between capital and labor, and between industry and
agriculture. We must abolish all special privileges, differential
tariffs, subsidies, quotas, licenses, limited liability corporations
and all cartels or monopolies (particularly in banking) in the private
sector of the economy.
"Liberty, justice, Humanity"
Predatory competition is permitted and encouraged by the granting of
special privileges to particular persons, companies and classes. Until
this is ended there can be no real free market, no fraternal
competition in establishing wages and prices, no just return to
agriculture and other producers of basic raw materials.
The cure for what is wrong in the so-called free world today is not
to confer off-setting special privileges (which was begun during the
Thirties under The Franklin Roosevelt administration). The cure is to
repeal existing special privileges, instead of wholesale granting of
special privileges, subjecting the whole economy to the whims, fancies
and corruption of politicians and bureaucrats.
One of the most crucial and least understood special privileges are
those granted to corporations. Three of these are outstandingly
unjust: (1) limited liability, (2) non-assessibility of stockholders
of corporations, and (3) exemption of directors and officers for
liability for mis-feasance, non-feasance and mal-feasance. Such
special privileges to corporations have inhibited the growth of
cooperative enterprises. One responsibility of the New Leadership is
to fire the imagination, stimulate the organization, and train
management of cooperatives so that cooperatives develop where the
nature of the enterprise calls for cooperation.
This is particularly true in banking, in the operation of public
utilities, and "natural" monopolies. This occurred in
Denmark and in other countries where cooperation flourishes. Leaders
inspired by the Danish folk schools, transformed the economic order of
Denmark. A veritable revolution took place slowly under the initiative
of men and women whom I regard as consecrated members of the New
The terrible handicaps under which proprietary enterprise in America
operates, can be corrected. The existing land tenure can be changed to
one which is genuinely just; the dishonest money system can become
stable; the present imperfect market system can be free -- and
competition can work so that prices, wages, rent, interest and profits
are fair and just. This calls for new leadership and re-education.
Free enterprise in a free economic order is not of one kind --
(private) only. It is three totally different kinds: (1) proprietory,
(2) corporate and (3) cooperative. With genuine freedom all three of
these spontaneously arise and progress unless they are interfered with
by the granting of special privileges to one, and handicaps imposed
Prices in A Complex Industrial System. Only through a free
market can prices be justly established and economic activities
effectively regulated. This calls for each producer producing his
best, but in such a market, competition must be fraternal. In effect,
in a free market cooperation between buyers and sellers establishes
prices which are just. Fraternal competition must replace all the
forms of predatory competition which we mistakenly accept or excuse in
the present capitalistic order. To create a truly free market, all
regulation and interference by government of prices, wages, rent,
interest and profits must be abolished, and the market given the
opportunity to regulate them in accord with the law of supply and
3. Mutualization. No just society is possible unless it is
recognized that not two but three distinct sectors exist in every
economy: (1) the naturally private, (2) the naturally monopolistic and
(3) the naturally public. All natural monopolies -- railroads, power
companies, water services, gas companies, pipelines, telegraph and
telephone systems, irrigation districts, banks of issue -- must be
mutualized (owned and operated in the interests of those who use them)
and by rebating all surplus earnings pro rata to users, insure that
their services are furnished at cost, and no profits are appropriated
by private interests nor exploited by the government.
4. Free Trade. All differential and so-called protective
tariffs must be abolished, and national boundaries in essence
abolished. National boundaries must cease being economic barriers;
they should be reduced to administrative conveniences. Basically all
peoples, all creeds, all races have the human right to trade freely
with one another. If free trade is a good within a country, free trade
is good between countries. Customs guards must be ended, and
recognition given to the fact that all mankind belongs to one human
race, if a free and just economic order is to replace the capitalistic
and socialistic economies of today.
5. Free Banking: Honest Currency; Stable Money. Government
control and regulation of banks -- private, commercial and mutual --
must be ended. Banks should be free to provide credit as needed by all
legitimate borrowers. The natural monopoly of issue of legal tender
currency should be restricted to cooperatively-organized reserve
banks. Banking is a profession, not a business; banks which create
credit and issue money should be cooperative, and not commercial
Nothing has done more to discredit capitalism or to destroy faith in
a free economy than the use of a banking system for private
aggrandisement along with using the money system for meeting the
deficits of government. The gross immorality of debauching the
currency must be ended. The business cycle with its boom and bust is a
monetary phenomenon. There are no unsolved technical difficulties in
creating a stable and honest unit of currency. Capitalism's
exploitation of the banking system and the debasement of money must
6. Free Access to The Possession of Land. A just system of
land tenure is essential to ending employment, wage-slavery and
landowners' exploitation of farmers. By arranging equality of access
to land for everyone, laborers and tenants will have the alternative
of going to the land and producing on their own. This adds to their
bargaining power in dealing with employers and landowners. It is their
alternative to accepting unjust wages, or payment of excessive rent to
All the natural resources of the earth -- the land, the forests, the
oil, the minerals and the waters -- are the gift of nature, or
Nature's God to nil humankind. No title to absolute ownership of any
part of the Earth can be traced back to a deed issued by the creator
of the Earth. All natural resources are by their nature trusterty,
not property. Land should be privately possessed (not owned to buy and
sell) to be used for incentive to its fullest and most efficient use.
But the unearned increment (the ground rent and the mineral royalties)
instead of being privately appropriated, should be used instead of
taxes to pay for the necessary services provided by the community.
Apologists for capitalism defend private property in land; they
defend speculation in land. Such insistence has hopelessly identified
Capitalism with the injustices of the present land-tenure system in
the "free" world Communist alternatives -- nationalization
and collectivization of land -- can be avoided. A new system of land
tenure can be based on the ethical principles oi Mencius in China and
Henry George in America.
7. Freedom of Possession. Title to property can originate
legitimately only in one way -- by its production. Once created in
this way, title to it can be transferred, devised, or exchanged for
other property, the ownership of which has come into existence the
same way. The law of property in a free world must be revised so as to
distinguish not only between what is mine, and what is yours, but also
what is ours. Both property and trusterty exist. Community collection
of what is "ours" -- the ground rent of natural resources
would be in the direction of justice. Other taxes could be eliminated
as limited government replaces unlimited government and as world
federation replaces national efforts for defense. Reduction in costs
of government would follow, and be met by the collection of community
value in, or the economic rent of, land.
A NEW LEADERSHIP
An ideological vacuum exists in the free world, and in the military
and communist dictatorships of the world. The world has lost its
bearings People are disillusioned with mass poverty, government
support, exploitation, rural decay and urban blight, imperialism and
militarism, and above all languish for the denial of liberty. Many
people are sick even of prosperity in which the human spirit is
alienated. Because of the scientific revolution, many are ready to
abandon the dogmatisms of religion. They are ready to turn from
demagogues and nationalism They are looking for something fresh and
new, something to give purpose and meaning worthy of the human spirit.
Promises are made to abolish all existing evils with the panacea of
the State -- organized force and compulsion. Masses have been, and are
being, dazzled by these golden promises. What do the active leaders of
the free world have to offer? In sum, they offer continuance of what
we now have in the so-called democratic world But this is what most of
mankind has already subconsciously rejected. This is the ideological
vacuum which gives to the Statists their opportunity. But this
rejection is what also affords opportunity to a New Leadership to
provide truly human solutions.
A New Leadership faces a real difficulty -- one they do not welcome
and confront courageously. Our difficulty is that we cannot create a
good world quickly.
But if the program presented is adequate; if it deals with the roots
of our social and human weakness -- not expedients dealing
superficially with grave problems -- then every year there will be
improvements -- which accumulate geometrically. But to reach the
hard-tore common sense of people, to enlist the enthusiastic support
of intelligent men and women, the program must be explicit It must be
comprehensive and persuasively presented. And it must be promoted by
selfless leaders who do not discredit themselves by apologizing for
the evils of the present order.
Neither capitalism as it exists in the so-called free nations nor
Socialism in the so-called Welfare States, nor Communism in the
so-called "people's democracies" are adequate social orders.
Social renaissance calls for abandonment of Socialism and Communism
and transforming Capitalism into a free and just economic order Is the
Pan-Humanism with its drastic changes here called for, ready to come
into its own?
No such changes in economic institutions of both democratic and
dictatorial countries are possible without re-education and
humanization of at least a determining number of men and women in the
world. Political and economic drastic changes are not enough. In the
final analysis, if human kind is to be saved from a mechanical and
materialistic barbarism, if people are to be taught to live
rationally, lovingly and humanely, the educators of mankind must
furnish the leadership which the crisis calls for. Then men and women
in every race and country can create liberty and justice for all
- Borsodi did not conceive of
one final Truth. Rather, that truths could be distilled about all
areas of living -- i.e., those formulations of values and facts
which (when practised) resulted in continuing growth and
well-being of persons.
Dr. Borsodi regarded the verifying of facts and validating of
values so important for everyone, that he includes this as a major
problem of living under The Problem of Communication: Verification
and Validation. See SEVENTEEN PROBLEMS OF INDIVIDUALS AND
For centuries, Greek and Roman civilization -- both masters and
slaves -- accepted the legitimacy of slavery. During the Middle
Ages in Spain, people accepted the Inquisition as a proper
instrument for insuring Christian salvation.
Today people almost everywhere accept the legitimacy of the
mistaken belief in private appropriation by potentates and
politicians of the Middle East. See Borsodi Global Peace Plan
available from The School of Living, York, Pa.
Private use of oil royalties is not questioned even by educated
people who have been taught economics and social sciences of the
conventional kind. They have been taught to think of the
institution of private property in land as a legitimate one.
But the social acceptance of slavery, religious persecution or
private property in land is Discord, not Harmony.
- Borsodi's proposed Peace Plan
and World Authority is available from the School of Living.
- Concurrent jurisdiction
elaborated in the pages on World Authority.